Rear-seaters were unable to hear, (restrictive)
Uncle Bert, who has some hearing loss, stepped forward; my cousin Bob, a skilled harpist; (restrictive)
Mary, our eldest child, sings (nonrestrictive)
Use a comma to separate the phrase or subordinate clause that comes before the sentence's main clause.
They expanded their dominions to the east and attained royal status with the acquisition of Sicily, thanks in part to ferocious combat and in part to diplomatic ability.
A comma should be placed before a conjunction that introduces an independent sentence.
The city's early documents are no longer available, making it impossible to reconstruct the history of its early years.
Even though the scenario is dangerous, there is still a chance to get out.
A comma is also required before the conjunction in two-part sentences if the second member is introduced by as (in the sense of "because"), for, or, nor, or while (in the sense of "and at the same time").
The second independent clause does not require a comma if it is preceded by a dependent clause or an introductory phrase that calls for one.
Although the situation is dangerous, there is yet a chance for escape if we are willing to move quickly.
If the connective is but and the subject is the same for both clauses and is only stated once, a comma is necessary. If there is a close or immediate relationship between the two assertions when the connective is and, the comma should be removed.
Despite listening to the reasons, I remain unpersuaded.
He is really knowledgeable and has several years of expertise.
- Avoid using commas to separate independent clauses.
A semicolon is the appropriate punctuation mark when two or more grammatically sound clauses are combined to make a single compound phrase without the use of a conjunction.
The works of Mary Shelley are enjoyable and brimming with interesting concepts.
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